Τρίτη, 13 Αυγούστου 2013

SUMMER SCHOOL Studies in Orthodox Theology 25–31 August 2013 



The School of Pastoral and Social Theology of the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki organizes a short and comprehensive programme of one week courses at the Macedonian city of Veroia, where St Paul’s podium and a multitude of byzantine churches and monasteries.
The Course has been planned in order to present and promote the educative riches of Orthodox Theology and its cultural treasure.
LOCATION: Veroia, at the privately owned site of the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki.
TARGET GROUP: The Course is addressed to all interested undergraduate and post-graduate students currently enrolled in an academic institution, both from Greece and abroad, who wish to gain a deeper understanding and experience of Orthodox theological writings and spirituality.
COURSE AIM: The purpose of the Course is to offer a series of foundational lessons in Orthodox Theology by combining knowledge based understanding and direct, personal, cultural interaction with the local tradition. The lessons will address the key disciplines of Orthodox Theology: Biblical Studies (Old and New Testament), Patrology and Hagiology, Church History, Dogmatics and Ecumenical Relations, Liturgics and the Christian Arts, Canon Law, Pastoral Care and Christian Sociology, Christian Ethics. It is expected that, upon successful completion of the Course, the students will have acquired a broad and general overview of the major fields of Orthodox Theology, as well as a basic understanding of Orthodox Spirituality and the culture that emerges from it.
STRUCTURE OF THE COURSE: Four hours of instruction will be offered daily (4 Χ 7=28 classroom hours). Sessions will begin on Sunday morning with a visit to an Orthodox Church, where we will attend the Divine Liturgy. The Course will conclude on Saturday afternoon with a Farewell Social. The program also includes some excursions to archeological sites and museums, as well as a social event with ecclesiastical and other local constituents of the city. In addition, it is possible that, during the late evening hours, after the scheduled teaching sessions, other educational activities may be introduced by the instructors, ones that will supplement the teaching sessions.
The teaching sessions consist of the following units:
I) The Exegesis of Holy Scripture (Old and New Testament) on select biblical texts according to the patristic tradition. Detection of forerunner use of later hermeneutical methods by the Fathers of the Church and accentuation of the possibility of hermeneutical renewal and deeper theological understanding through patristic interpretation.
II) Patrology and Hagiology with the study of significant chapters of the Orthodox literary tradition. Select presentation of patristic theology and the ways in which it responds to contemporary spiritual issues.
III) Church History with highlighting the major historical events of the Byzantine culture and of the Orthodox Hellenism.
IV) Dogmatics and Ecumenical Relations with the interpretation of select dogmatic and symbolic texts, including a focus on the Orthodox witness in contemporary theological dialogues.
V) Liturgics and the Christian Arts with a presentation of the Orthodox ecclesiastical tradition from a liturgical, worship, aesthetic and architectural perspective, including visits to Byzantine monuments. An introduction to the art of chant.
VI) Canon Law with reference to ecclesial institutions and organisms.
VII) Pastoral Care and the Sociology of Christianity with a presentation of the patristic understanding of social issues and pastoral care.
VIII) Christian Ethics according to the teaching of the Fathers and in reference to the contemporary challenges.
Emphasis will be given on the inter-thematic and multifaceted presentation of the topics and its connection with the contemporary orthodox reality and the local culture, monumental, customary, and ecclesial. To this end, beyond the tours scheduled to take place during the teaching sessions, additional (optional) opportunities will be offered for participation in first hand experiences, such as the attendance at vespers at the skete of St John the Forerunner, where St Gregory Palamas resided, visits to archaeological sites etc.
PERIOD: Sunday 25 – Saturday 31 August 2013
STUDY-LOAD AND CREDITS: Attendance and successful completion of the Course awards participants 2 ECTS and a Certificate of Further Education.
FEE: 250 euro per person
OVERSIGHT COMMITEE: Assoc. Prof. Dr Kyriakoula Papademetriou (academic director of the course), Prof. Dr Athanasios Karathanasis (president of the School), and Assoc. Prof. Dr Symeon Paschalidis.
ACCOMODATION: Electronic addresses, with regard to accommodations and transfers, will be posted soon so that students may directly make arrangements for their participation.
INFORMATION: www.past.auth.gr,  www.diaviou.auth.gr
CONTACT: info@past.auth.gr, kyp@past.auth.gr, dimosthek@yahoo.gr, fgermani@past.auth.gr

The full courses programm is here

Workshop on Medieval Hagiographic Collections in Central Europe took place in Stift Klosterneuburg

A workshop on Medieval Hagiographic Collections in Central Europe / Mittelalterliche Hagiographische Sammlungen in Zentraleuropa took place in Vienna on 7 June 2013, coorganized by the Project Visions of Community of the University of Vienna and Institut für Mittelalterforschung of the Austrian Academy of Sciences.
The aim of the workshop was to present and discuss ongoing research in the field of medieval hagiography in Central and Eastern Europe as well as future plans for cooperation, bringing together representatives of several projects based in Austria.
Kateřina Horníčková, member of the Austrian team from the Institut für Realienkunde, represented our project with a contribution Seeing Saints: From Symbolic Communication to Visualising Narratives.

The programme of the workshop is available here


Institute for Medieval Studies of the University of Leeds


Visions of Community at the
International Medieval Congress 2013

VISCOM Sessions | Associated Sessions

In 2013, VISCOM will have a large presence at the International Medieval Congress, which takes place from 1-4 July, and is organized by the Institute for Medieval Studies of the University of Leeds. In the course of this VISCOM Session Strand, on Monday 1 and Tuesday 2 July, the Junior and Senior members of VISCOM, as well as a great number of invited guests, will present papers on a wide variety of topics, showcasing both the diversity and the internal coherence of the Project, as well as its emphasis on comparative approaches to the Middle Ages.


110: Visions of Community I: After the End of Ancient Christianity - The Reconfiguration of Late Antique Topographies in Merovingian Historiography and Hagiography
  • Helmut Reimitz (Princeton University)  – The Merovingian six book-version of Gregory of Tours’ Histories and the creation of new Spielrδume for the spiritual topography of Gaul
  • Jamie Kreiner (University of Georgia) – A Contest at Brioude: Hagiography after Gregory of Tours
  • Gordon Blennemann (DHI Paris/Universitδt Erlangen-Nόrnberg) – The Creation of Martyrs in Early Medieval Burgundy: King Sigismund as Archetype?
Moderator: Ian Wood (University of Leeds)

As Christendom had consolidated its foothold in the hearts and minds of the peoples in Western Europe, and the political influence of the Roman Empire was gradually fading from view, the new intellectual elite, consisting mainly of ecclesiastical officials who had imposed themselves on the legacy of Rome, went at lengths to reconfigure the spiritual landscape of the lands they had inherited. Chief among these authors, as Helmut Reimitz will argue, was the sixth-century bishop Gregory of Tours, whose Histories perhaps most clearly reflects these shifts and the subsequent search for new boundaries – both real and spiritual. Building on this paper, Jamie Kreiner will then look at the cult of Saint Julian to demonstrate how this process continued in hagiographical narratives produced in the seventh century, which both adopted and challenged Gregory's topographies. Finally, Gordon Blennemann will show how the two "genres" would essentially overlap by focusing on the Passio Sancti Sigismundi regis, a strikingly dyadic text in which a Burgundian origo gentis is combined with the life of this saintly king. As such, all three papers focus not only on narrative references to the Roman and Biblical past, but also try to situate these within the specific social and political context of the production of these texts, as well as to the longue durιe of hagiographical and historiographical traditions.

210: Visions of Community II: Related Narratives, Entangled Communities - Strategies of Identification in Central European Historiography and Hagiography
  • Christina Lutter (University of Vienna)– Narrating Community: Methodological Approaches
  • Bernhard Zeller (Austrian Academy of Sciences) – A Community in Search of Itself: Sankt Gallen and the Making of Saint Otmar
  • John Eldevik (Hamilton, NY) – Communities of Violence: Saracens and Saints in Medieval Bavaria
  • Martin Haltrich (Klosterneuburg)– The Stories of a Community: Zwettl and the Magnum Legendarium Austriacum
Moderator: Steffen Patzold (University of Tόbingen

Whenever a group of people gets together, whenever a community gradually comes into being, its members inevitably start reflecting on their own histories and retelling them in terms of how their lives had become intertwined, and, eventually how their shared feeling of belonging together had developed. In doing so, they would of course also take recourse to the previously existing narratives that inspired them to make their own story one worth relating to, and look to other communities around them for comparison and inspiration – both positive and negative. As such, stories developed into narratives and the people and communities that produced them would develop almost continuously throughout the ages, feeding off one another and becoming increasingly intertwined: a fascinating process, which this session hopes to address more fully. First, Christina Lutter will present an overview of the methodological issues that arise when one considers the functions of narrative sources and their uses in the formation and consolidation of communities. Bernhard Zeller will then focus on a particular case by showing how the formation, use and and Nachleben of Saint Otmar in the Carolingian age helped the monastery of Sankt-Gallen find its own way in history. John Eldevik will then go on to examine the peculiar tradition of the Passio of the crusading archbishop Thiemo of Salzburg. As he argues, the images of violence in this work should not only be seen an example of medieval (mis)perceptions of Islam as a polytheistic cult, but also were also appropriated for negotiating conflicts and identities in other contexts, particularly monastic reform.  Finally, Martin Haltrich will then present the case of the Magnum Legendarium Austriacum, a huge and ostentatious twelfth-century collection of mostly older, but also some contemporary saints' lives that may only be found in Austrian libraries, addressing the observation that not only the composition, but also the copying of texts could help bring a community together

310: Visions of Community III: Time and History in the Construction of Authority
  • Veronika Wieser (Austrian Academy of Sciences) – The Best Prophets of the Future: Bishops and Kings in Late Antiquity
  • Erik Goosmann (Utrecht University) – From dux Francorum to custos anserum: Managing Perceptions in Carolingian Historiography: the Case of Carloman's Conversion (747)
  • Graeme Ward (University of Cambridge) – (Re)sources of Authority in Frechulf of Lisieux's Histories
Moderator: Helmut Reimitz (Princeton University)

This session revolves around the question to what extent time, history and authority interact in the historiographical output of late antiquity and the early middle ages. On the one hand, it was often implied that authority was often found in the past – be it to establish the political power of a dynasty aspiring, or to have the last word on a theological issues. On the other hand, however, the progression of time itself could factor into this equation as well, changing the status of certain historical actors as their presence became increasingly subject to (carefully managed) perceptions. Starting in Late Antiquity, Veronika Wieser will show one curious aspect of this, by showing how images of the future also became ever more authoritative as their age increased. This observation is then taken up by Erik Goosmann, who will demonstrate that not only intellectual phenomena, but also controversial figures such as Carloman could be used by Carolingian historiographers, who can be shown to have been very astute managers of their dynasty's sometimes turbulent past indeed. Graeme Ward will then turn these questions around, by focusing on the relationship between textual authority and ideas of rulership as seen through the eyes of Frechulf of Lisieux, for whom ancient texts both were invested with special qualities and packed full of examples which aimed at shaping the morals of more contemporary actors.

 510: Visions of Community IV: Urban Communities in Late Medieval Central Europe, 1350-1550 – Regions
  • Michaela Malanikovα (Masaryk University Brno) – South Moravian Urban Communities within the Corona regni Bohemiae in the Late Middle Ages
  • Judit Majorossy (CEU Budapest) – Urban Communities and Their Networks in the Western Part of Late Medieval Hungary
  • Niels Petersen (University of Gφttingen) – Salt, Money, Politics: The Sόlfmeister of Lόneburg as a Leading Group in the City and Duchy of Brunswick and Lόneburg
  • Christian Opitz (University of Vienna – The Dominican Communities of Konstanz and the Many Faces of Saint John
Moderator: Elisabeth Gruber (University of Vienna)
During the late Middle Ages, a number of cities located in the duchy of Austria, the kingdom of Bohemia including Moravia, as well as the West-Hungarian region represented relevant nodes in terms of infrastructure, knowledge, political influence and administration, and thus played an important role within economic, political and cultural relations in Central Europe. The main issue of this session is to describe the influence exerted by these cities when shaping and structuring the specific regions to obtain a comprehensive picture of the reasons for their importance and, more specifically, of the role of various social groups in an urban context.

610: Visions of Community V: Urban Communities in Late Medieval Central Europe, 1350-1550 – Relations
  • Elisabeth Gruber (University of Vienna) – Trust is Good – Kinship is Better: Kinship Relations among Late-Medieval Urban Elites in the Duchy of Austria
  • Karoly Goda (Mόnster University) – A Self-Made Community? Eucharistic Fraternities in Medieval Vienna and Beyond
  • Maria Theisen (University of Vienna) – Creating Infrastructure for Crafts and Arts in the City of Prague During the Late 14th Century: the Noble, the Church and the Urban Community
  • Response: Simon Teuscher (University of Zόrich)
Moderator: Christina Lutter (University of Vienna)
Social relations in late medieval cities are intra- and interurban and manifest themselves in terms of kinship related, legal, institutional and economic aspects. To reconstruct the interplay of these elements and their impact on community building different methodological approaches are required. Analysing urban society as a social network of differently structured groups can be fruitful especially in times of social, political or economic change. We will focus on different social groups, their different forms of interaction and ask for different patterns of representation in terms of social heritage, family, affiliation with confraternities, but also age and gender.

710: Visions of Community VI: Conflict and Competition
  • Maria Mair (University of Vienna)– Negotiating Community: Narratives of Conflict in Late Medieval Vernacular Austrian Historiography
  • Fabian Kόmmeler (University of Vienna)– Social Conflict in Rural Communities in the Southern Dalmatian Areas of  Korčula and Split (1420-1540)
  • Daniel Mahoney (Austrian Academy of Sciences/University of Chicago)– The Divisive Formation and Contentious Competition of Tribal Groups in the Highlands of South Arabia during the Early Medieval Period
Moderator: Christina Lutter (University of Vienna)
By approaching conflict as a social practice that helps shape communities, the groups involved and their motivations may be interpreted as reflecting a wider picture of political competition in a specific historical context.  Using comparative examples from both medieval Europe and Asia, this session will explore the ways social conflict appears explicitly and implicitly in a variety of media such as historiographical narratives, court records, wall paintings, and even geographical descriptions.  Additionally, it will demonstrate how these accounts of conflict may be used to indicate the social tensions of both the original context of the conflict itself and the period when it was recorded or retold. 
To that end, Maria Mair will look at how authors of Austrian vernacular verse chronicles in the late 13th century used conflict narratives to establish and reinforce the political position of their own social groups and to discuss concepts of ‘good’ and ‘bad’ community. Fabian Kόmmeler will then examine the role of conflicts in the everyday life of rural communities in late medieval Dalmatia on the basis of court records using pastoral nomads acting in confrontation with their urban, patrician, and rural counterparts as an example. Finally, Daniel Mahoney will look at the political competition and conflict within the tribal community of highland South Arabia as manifested in the genealogies, geographies, and anecdotes found in texts of the early medieval period.

810: Visions of Community VII: Enclaves of Learning - Religion, Ideologies, and Practices in Europe, Arabia, and Tibet
  • Rutger Kramer (Austrian Academy of Sciences/Utrecht University) – Monks on the Via Regia? Smaragdus of Saint-Mihiel between Ideal and Reality
  • Eirik Hovden (Austrian Academy of Sciences)– Managers of Knowledge: Hijras and Madrasas in medieval South Arabia
  • Mathias Fermer – (Austrian Academy of Sciences) Enlightened Activities of Buddhist Masters: The Religious Establishment(s) of the Sakya School in Southern Central Tibet
Moderator: Walter Pohl (Austrian Academy of Sciences/University of Vienna)
In all major religions, communities may be found that exist for the purpose of safeguarding the knowledge and propagating the practices upon which the culture they operated in were founded – from the monasteries that dotted the religious landscape of the Christian west, to the the Sakya institutions of Tibetan Buddhism, and the hijras and madrasas in South Arabia. These communities all had a central place in their respective societies, but were also kept isolated in order to guard the knowledge they keep against outside contamination. In reality, however, they all also interacted with the world around them, and depended upon its secular wealth as much as the world depended on their spiritual prowess.
In spite of these apparent similarities in the social, religious and economic functions of such communities, it has proven to be surprisingly difficult to find a definition that fits all of them, due to the fact that there are also major differences between them – differences that only become apparent when they are looked at in a comparative context. This session aims to do just that. First, Rutger Kramer will provide a backdrop by presenting a vision of monastic communities described by the Carolingian abbot Smaragdus, who thus simultaneously fulfilled the roles of participant and observer in the monastic world of the turbulent early ninth century. Eirik Hovden will then showcase a specific type of enclave existing in Yemen, the hijras, and show how they had found a peculiar balance between their religious heritage and the wide array of social and economic responsibilities they also carried. Finally, moving further eastwards, Mathias Fermer will present the way the activities of the spiritual masters of the Sakya sect of Tibetan Buddhism provided a blueprint for monastic life that also is both strikingly similar and surprisingly different from the European situation. In all cases, however, these enclaves of learning were shaped as much by the needs of the community around them as by forces operating from within, and by analysing the interplay between these, surprising observations are brought to light.

Associated Sessions

Below, you will find a list of sessions organized by researchers or projects associated with VISCOM.
103: New Research in Late Antique and Early Medieval Monasticism
203: Neglected Texts in Late Antique and Early Medieval Monasticism

Organization: Network for the Study of Late Antique & Early Medieval Monasticism

824: The Growth of Religious Reform Movements in Late Medieval Central and Eastern Europe: Contexts and Comparisons
Organization: Kateřina Hornνčkovα, (Universitδt Salzburg)

1003: Being Roman after Rome I
1103: Being Roman after Rome II

Organization: ERC Advanced Grant: Social Cohesion, Identity & Religion in Europe (SCIRE)

1010: Texts and Identities I: Governing the Body - Governing the Soul: Christianity and Society in the Carolingian Period
1110: Texts and Identities II:
Early Medieval Episcopal Self-Fashioning
1210: Texts and Identities III:
Organising Knowledge and Constructing Communities
1310: Texts and Identities IV:
Violence, Legitimacy, and Identity during the Transformation of the Roman World
1510: Texts and Identities V:
The Merovingians and Their Past
1610: Texts and Identities VI:
Barbarians, Arians, and Other Monsters
1710: Texts and Identities VII:
Defining Community in Early Medieval Kingdoms - Theory and Practice

1203: The Rules of Debate in Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages I
1303: The Rules of Debate in Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages II

1503: The Reign of Louis the Pious and the Productivity of an Empire I: High Fidelity
1603: The Reign of Louis the Pious and the Productivity of an Empire II:
The Return of the King
Organization: Rutger Kramer (project: Hludowicus: Die Produktivitδt einer Krise/La Productivitι d'une Crise)


The International Consortium for Research in the Humanities "Fate, Freedom and Prognostication" at the University Erlangen-Nuremberg

Conférence conjointe de l'EPHE (Université de Sorbonne-Paris) et de l'IKGF (Université d' Erlangen-Nuremberg)



Table ronde international : Hagiographie et prophétie, de l'Antiquité au XIIIe siècle

Vendredi 11 et samedi 12 octobre 2013
Organisation: Klaus Herbers (Université d′Erlangen) et Patrick Henriet (Paris, École Pratique des hautes Études)
S′ils ne se confondent pas, le personnage du saint et celui du prophète se croisent et se confondent fréquemment depuis qu′il existe des textes hagiographiques. Saint Antoine, saint Martin de Tours, saint Benoît, sont parfois prophètes, même si, comme l′écrit Athanase à propos d′Antoine, « il ne faut pas prier pour prévoir l′avenir, ni désirer cela comme récompense de l′ascèse » (Vita Antonii, II, 34). La prévision des événements à venir n′est cependant qu′un aspect du prophétisme, généralement conçu, dans la lignée d′Augustin et de Grégoire le Grand, comme « la capacité de mettre en lumière ce qui est caché ».
La séparation très nette du passé, du présent et du futur est à bien des égards moderne et ne correspond que partiellement à la façon dont le temps était appréhendé au Moyen Âge. Dans un schéma de pensée typologique profondément marqué par la méditation de la Bible, tout événement n′est que l′accomplissement de ce qui a déjà été annoncé. De même que les faits rapportés dans le Nouveau Testament sont une confirmation de ce qu′annonçait l′Ancien Testament, de même, les faits contemporains ne sont que l′actualisation passagère d′un discours supra-historique exposé par le texte sacré. Selon les miracles opérés, saint Benoît peut donc être un nouveau Moïse, un nouvel Élisée, un nouveau Pierre, un nouvel Élie ou un nouveau David, alors que sept siècles plus tard, Saint François d′Assise est un « nouvel évangéliste ». Le don de prophétie est aussi un moyen pour les ascètes de faire face aux puissants, ce qui met la connaissance de l′avenir au service d′une bonne gestion du présent, dans des sociétés où le politique et le religieux relèvent très largement de la même sphère.
A partir du XIIe siècle, parallèlement à la multiplication des expériences prophétiques aux marges de l'Église, les saints prophètes (et plus encore les saintes prophétesses) qui tiennent un discours explicite et parfois systématique sur le futur se font de plus en plus nombreux. Or au même moment, l'étude du sens littéral de la Bible se renforce et l'attention portée à l'Histoire humaine par le biais des chroniques fait l'objet d'un fort investissement. Comment faut-il interpréter ces évolutions en apparence contradictoires ? Peut-on envisager le discours sur le futur comme un aspect parmi d'autres d'une vaste évolution qui pourrait être caractérisée comme une sorte de réappropriation humaine du temps, comme une historicisation du monde qui, toujours pensée de concert avec l'accomplissement du plan divin, resterait essentiellement différente de celle des sociétés modernes ? La multiplication des textes hagiographiques consacrés à des saints réformateurs endossant volontiers l'habit du prophète (ainsi Grégoire VII caractérisé par Paul Bernried comme un nouvel Élie) invite à étudier de pair l'intérêt pour l'Église hic et nunc et l'arrière-plan eschatologique qui l'accompagne, voire le soutient.
Ces quelques rappels, ces quelques questions, n'ont d'autre but que d'aider à penser, tout en l'historicisant, le rapport complexe et mouvant qui a toujours uni prophétie et sainteté. Il conviendra de diversifier les approches et les points de vue en parcourant un long Moyen Âge, en en reliant lorsque ce sera possible les usages du temps avec les discours sur l'espace, sur l'Église et sur la société chrétienne, en posant la question du rapport entre prophétie et pouvoirs (terrestre et céleste), en traquant enfin, les évolutions et les ruptures.
[Pour imparfaites qu'elles soient, les lignes qui précèdent doivent beaucoup à deux importantes mises au point : M. Van Uytfanghe, « Modèles bibliques dans l'hagiographie », dans P. Riché et G. Lobrichon, Le Moyen Âge et la Bible, Paris, 1984, p. 449-487, et A. Vauchez, Le prophétisme médiéval d'Hildegarde de Bingen à Savonarole, Budapest, 1999 (Public Lecture Series, 20)].

Vendredi 11 octobre

9h 00 Discours de bienvenue
Klaus Herbers et Patrick Henriet
9h 15 Introduction
Patrick Henriet
9h 45 Espaces d'expérience narratifs des dernières choses : l'imagination eschatologique dans la martyrologie de l'Antiquité tardive et du haut Moyen Âge
Gordon Blennemann (Université d’Erlangen)
10h 30 Pause
11h Images, prédictions et présages à Byzance et dans l'Occident médiéval
J.M. Sansterre (Université Libre de Bruxelles)
11h 45 Prophétie dans la Vie de saint Columba par Adamnan
Edina Bozoky (Université de Poitiers)
12h 30 Repas
14h 15 L'espace ou le temps ? Les visions cosmiques des saints
Patrick Henriet (Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes)
15h 00 Daniel/Jérémie : les modèles prophétiques des saints carolingiens
Sumi Shimahara (Université de Paris IV-Sorbonne)
14h 45 Vision, rapport à l'au-delà et action politique à l'époque carolingienne
Philippe Depreux (Université de Limoges)
16h 30 Pause
17h 00 Hagiographie, historiographie et prophétie au IXe siècle franc : connaître le passé ou connaître l'avenir ? Une histoire de la Providence
Marie-Céline Isaïa (Université de Lyon 3)
17h 45 Entre historiographie et hagiographie: Les messages prophétiques de l'Evêque Henri dans la chronique d'Arnold de Lübeck
Hans-Christian Lehner (Université d’Erlangen-Nürnberg)
18h 30 Fin

Samedi 12 octobre

9h 00 L'histoire sans fin. L'ordre des temps dans l'oeuvre des visionnaires rhénans (XIIe-XIIIe siècle)
Uta Kleine (Université à distance d’Hagen)
9h 45 Vitae, Visions et prophétie. L'hagiographie et l'au-delà dans les textes des XIIe et XIIIe siècles
Prof. Dr Klaus Herbers (Université d'Erlangen-Nürnberg)
10h 30 Pause
10h 45 Aspects de la mémoire d'une prophétesse : Hildegarde
Laurence Moulinier (Université de Lyon II)
11h 30 Comparaisons avec le monde chinois, avec la participation de Stéphane Feuillas (Université de Paris 7)
Table ronde
12h 00 Conclusions
Klaus Herbers
12h 30 Repas

Hagiography and Prophecy from Ancient Times to the 13th Century

October 11-12, 2013
Convenors: Klaus Herbers (Université d'Erlangen), Patrick Henriet (Paris, École Pratique des hautes Études)
In hagiographical texts, the character of the saint is often merged with that of the prophet. Thus St. Anthony, St. Martin of Tours, and St. Benedict are sometimes also referred to as prophets. Athanasius, for example, writes about Anthony: "We neither ought to pray to know the future, nor to ask for it as the reward of our discipline" (Vita Antonii, 34).
The prediction of future events is only one aspect of prophecy, however. When regarded in the sense of Augustine and Gregory the Great, it is rather generally "the ability to bring to light what is hidden."
The clear distinction between past, present and future is modern and does not reflect the way in which time and its passage were understood in the Middle Ages. According to a typological mode of thinking, which is characterized by contemplation of the Bible, every event is the fulfillment of something that has already been signified. Just as the events reported in the New Testament are a confirmation of those incidents foretold in the Old Testament, contemporary events are the temporary actualization of a trans- or metahistorical discourse presented by a sacred text. Due to miracles, St. Benedict can be a new Moses, Elisha, Peter, Elijah or David, while, seven centuries later, St. Francis of Assisi is able to appear as a "new evangelist." The gift of prophecy also acts as a means for ascetics to defy the powers that be to the extent that knowledge about the future is provided to positively influence the present, particularly in societies where political and religious concerns are largely part of the same realm.
From the 12th century onward, prophets (also female prophets) who conducted a unique and sometimes systematic discourse on the future became more numerous, while the number of prophetic experiences within the Church simultaneous increased. During the same period, however, the literal interpretation of the Bible gained strength and the Chronicles became an important medium for making sense of history.
How should the evolution of these contradictory developments be interpreted? Is it possible to view the debate about the future as one aspect among many of a more comprehensive development - a development which can be characterized as a type of human reappropriation of time, of historicizing the world, and which, beyond the fulfillment of a divine plan, is fundamentally distinct from the conceptions of modern societies? The proliferation of hagiographic texts about reformist saints who willingly took on the role of prophet (just as Gregory VII, for example, has been characterized by Paul von Bernried as a new Elijah) is an invitation to study in greater detail both the Church hic et nunc and its associated or supporting eschatological background.
The aim of these questions is to provide further intellectual stimulus, for prophecy and holiness in historical appraisals were always characterized by a complex and changing relationship. The conference will examine the multiplicity of approaches and views on the course of the Middle Ages and aim to make them more concrete. Where possible, the use of time will be linked to the discourse on space, the Church and Christian society. The focus will be on the relationship between prophecy and (earthly and heavenly) rule for the purpose of ultimately identifying developments and ruptures.

[For more on these questions, see: M. Van Uytfanghe, "Modèles bibliques dans l'hagiographie," in: P. Riché/G. Lobrichon, Le Moyen Âge et la Bible, Paris, 1984, pp. 449-487; A. Vauchez , Le prophétisme médiéval d'Hildegarde de Bingen à Savonarole, Budapest, 1999 (Public Lecture Series, 20)] .

Hagiographie und Prophetie von der Antike bis zum 13. Jahrhundert

11.–12. Oktober 2013
Veranstalter: Klaus Herbers (Université d'Erlangen), Patrick Henriet (Paris, École Pratique des hautes Études)
In hagiographischen Texten verbindet sich häufig die Persönlichkeit des Heiligen und die des Propheten. Der heilige Antonius, der heilige Martin von Tours, der heilige Benedikt sind manchmal auch Propheten, wie Athanasius über Antonius schreibt: "Man darf nicht beten, um die Zukunft vorherzusehen, noch dies als Lohn der Askese verlangen" (Vita Antonii, 34).
Die Vorhersage kommender Ereignisse ist jedoch nur ein Aspekt der Prophetie, allgemein betrachtet im Sinne von Augustinus und Gregor dem Großen, es ist vielmehr "die Fähigkeit das ans Licht zu bringen, was versteckt ist".
Die deutliche Trennung von Vergangenheit, Gegenwart und Zukunft ist modern und entspricht nicht der Art und Weise, wie Zeit und Zeitverlauf im Mittelalter verstanden wurde. Innerhalb eines typologischen Denkens, das sich durch die Besinnung auf die Bibel auszeichnet, ist jedes Ereignis die Erfüllung eines bereits angezeigten. So wie die im Neuen Testament berichteten Ereignisse eine Bestätigung der im Alten Testament angekündigten Vorkommnisse sind, so sind die zeitgenössischen Ereignisse die vorübergehende Aktualisierung eines über- oder metageschichtlichen Diskurses, den ein sakraler Text vorgestellt hat. Aufgrund der Wunder kann der Heilige Benedikt ein neuer Moses, Elisa, Petrus, Elia oder David sein, während sieben Jahrhunderte später der Heilige Franziskus von Assisi als "neuer Evangelist" erscheint. Die Gabe der Prophetie fungiert auch als Mittel für Asketen, den Machthabern die Stirn zu bieten, indem das Wissen um die Zukunft in den Dienst einer guten Gestaltung der Gegenwart gestellt wird, vor allem in Gesellschaften, in denen politische und religiöse Belange weitestgehend dem gleichen Bereich angehören.
Ab dem 12. Jahrhundert werden die Propheten (und Prophetinnen), die einen eindeutigen und manchmal systematischen Diskurs über die Zukunft führen, immer zahlreicher, gleichzeitig nimmt die Anzahl prophetischer Erfahrungen im Umkreis der Kirche zu. Zur gleichen Zeit erstarkt aber auch die wörtliche Bibelauslegung und die Chroniken werden zu einem wichtigen Medium für die Auseinandersetzung mit der Geschichte.
Wie lässt sich nun diese Entwicklung widersprüchlicher Erscheinungen interpretieren? Kann man den Diskurs über die Zukunft als einen Aspekt unter vielen einer umfangreichen Entwicklung betrachten, einer Entwicklung, die als eine Art menschlicher Wiederaneignung der Zeit, als Historisierung der Welt charakterisiert werden kann und die sich im Wesentlichen, auch in Hinblick auf die Erfüllung eines göttlichen Planes, von Entwürfen moderner Gesellschaften unterscheidet? Die Zunahme von hagiographischen Texten reformerischer Heiliger, die bereitwillig die Rolle des Propheten aufgriffen (so wurde beispielsweise Gregor VII. von Paul von Bernried als neuer Elia charakterisiert) lädt dazu ein, sowohl die Kirche hic et nunc als auch den sie begleitenden oder unterstützenden eschatologischen Hintergrund genauer zu studieren.
Ziel dieser Fragen ist es, Denkanstöße zu liefern, denn in der geschichtlichen Betrachtung waren Prophetie und Heiligkeit immer durch ein komplexes und sich veränderndes Verhältnis zueinander charakterisiert. Im Zuge der Tagung wird es darauf ankommen, die Ansätze und Ansichten für den Verlauf des Mittelalters in ihrer Unterschiedlichkeit zu studieren und sie greifbarer zu machen; wo es möglich ist, wird die Verwendung der Zeit mit dem Diskurs über den Raum, die Kirche und die christliche Gesellschaft verknüpft, es wird die Frage zu stellen sein nach dem Verhältnis zwischen Prophetie und (irdischer und himmlischer) Herrschaft, um abschließend die Entwicklungen und Brüche benennen zu können.
[Vgl. zu diesen Fragen: M. Van Uytfanghe, « Modèles bibliques dans l′hagiographie », in: P. Riché/G. Lobrichon, Le Moyen Âge et la Bible, Paris, 1984, S. 449-487; A. Vauchez, Le prophétisme mèdièval d'Hildegarde de Bingen à Savonarole, Budapest, 1999 (Public Lecture Series, 20)].


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